46% of Tanzanians lack access to improved drinking water and 87% have no access to improved sanitation. 20% of the population wash hands with soap before preparing food and 16% are practicing open defecation. Alarmingly, 56 pupils on average share one latrine in public and private primary schools nationwide. 84% of the schools do not have functional hand washing facilities. Water borne diseases like cholera, malaria, trachoma, bilharziasis and diarrhoea are on the increase in Tanzanian communities. Children are the most affected. These diseases not only affect their physical development but also school attendance and academic performance.
When it comes to serving the urban poor, research shows that most municipal governments in developing countries prioritise portable water provisioning over sewage removal. Water is usually provided via community taps (standpipes shared by a group of households) that have led to improved availability of portable water to many slum settlements. However, it is in what we refer to as ‘the last 100 meters’ where water is carried from standpipe to home that problems arise. Unserved by sewerage systems, slum-dwellers rely on toilets draining into poorly constructed pits or septic tanks. The settlements are commonly located on low-lying and poorly drained lands, and the dwellers lack awareness of and provisions for safe handling and disposal of faeces, resulting in leakage of faecal material into local environments. Through various pathways (e.g. dirty buckets, unwashed hands, insect and rodent vectors) potable water and food is contaminated, causing ill-health.
BRAC in Tanzania, through our water, sanitation and hygiene programme is implementing a research project on Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements “The Last 100 meters” in collaboration with Lancaster University of UK and a network of institutions including the University of Manchester, the University of Dhaka, Ardhi University, CSE, WaterAid and DSK. The research is funded by the British Academy through its Global Challenge Research Fund.
The 16 months research project is developed on the rationale that, the last two decades have seen much improvements to potable water supply to millions of poor urban people across the developing world. However potential benefits of improved water supply are severely compromised by sewage contamination at a critical zone around the point of use – ‘the last 100 meters’- where water is taken from the standpipe to home.
The research addresses a critical challenge about how to transform water and sanitation infrastructure and practice in a relatively small space leading to measurable improvements to quality of water and sanitation management for poor urban people.
|Water Sanitation and Hygiene||The Last 100 Meters||British Academy through its Global Challenge Research Fund||March 2017||16 Months|
Despite high economic growth over past decade, 28% of Tanzanians are living below the poverty line and poverty remains more frequent in rural areas than urban areas. Financial inclusion in Tanzania has reached 86% in September 2016 from 16% in 2009. Tanzania’s financial sector has 20 licensed bank and 11 non- bank financial institution. According to 2012 Ernst & Young Banking review, only 12% of Tanzania’s population is banked and banking system in Tanzania failed to attract its customer because of it little innovation and poor banking system.
BRAC in Tanzania has become one of the largest providers of financial services in Tanzania. We show that microfinance can have a powerful impact on the lives of people in poverty through an innovative, client-focused and sustainable approach. Our microfinance programme is a critical component of our holistic approach to support livelihoods.
We reach out to a large number of clients with cost-effective financial services and address the needs of various target populations, such as rural women, adolescents, and small entrepreneurs. We provide two kinds of loans, microloans and small enterprise loans.
We provide microloans to women who are not served by other microfinance institutions, giving them the opportunity to operate businesses in their local communities. We also provide social education and financial literacy through weekly group meetings. Participants are advised on the best ways to manage their businesses in order to pay back loans efficiently.
Small enterprise loans
Small enterprise loans financially empower young entrepreneurs who do not have access to formal financial services. We offer small individual loans to business people who are less vulnerable than the microfinance group members. Most clients are now successfully running their businesses and generating employment opportunities for others. Higher economic benefits are indicated through single loans, placing less credit burden on other community members. Members who have successfully repaid their loans are able to expand their businesses by taking further loans. We also provide financial support and capacity building to help expand our clients’ businesses.
Young women in Tanzania face tremendous challenges. 40% of girls are pregnant or have had a child by the age of 18. 1 in 3 girls in Tanzania has experienced sexual violence before their 18th birthday. The unemployment rate in Tanzania is 13.4%, out of which 53.3% are youth and 33% more women than men. Tanzania shoulders 8% of the global burden of HIV and 10% of the 1.4 million Tanzanians living with HIV on the mainland are adolescents and of them, 45% are adolescents with the majority being females.
Our Empowerment and Livelihood for Adolescents Girls (ELA) programme is designed to address the above challenges by empowering teenage girls in Tanzania. We provide safe spaces for them to socialise, and receive mentoring and life skills training and combine it with financial literacy training and customised micro-loans, which socially and financially empowers adolescent girls.
We want to improve the quality of life of adolescents, especially vulnerable girls through social education and financial empowerment. We increase their awareness and knowledge, and develop skills on reproductive health, unwanted pregnancy, early marriage and HIV/AIDS. We promote awareness on gender discrimination, abuse and all forms of violence, and encourage meaningful participation in decision making. We also creating income generating opportunities for the girls.
We want to build confidence and instill a sense of self-worth in these girls, and encourage positive behavioural changes to improve their quality of life. This helps to prevent early marriages and leads to a more stable future for the next generation.
|Empowerment and Livelihood for Adolescents||Empowerment and Livelihood for Adolescents||NoVo Foundation||September 2013||5 years|
Enrollment in primary or secondary level and providing quality education is challenging in Tanzania. Primary education has increased from 89% to 97% in 2013 but later it declined to 85% in 2016 (UNICEF). Early marriage, poverty and pregnancy play vital role behind less enrollment rate at primary and secondary level. Adolescence pregnancy led 3,700 girls out of school from primary and secondary level in 2016 (UNICEF). Moreover, qualified teacher to student ratio is lower in public sector than private sector and most children enrolled primary education in village area cannot avail sufficient equipments and support.
BRAC’s education programme has been implemented to help the Tanzanian government provide quality education at all levels. Since launching there, we have become the largest secular and private education system in Tanzania, spreading across a number of regions. Our interventions are targeted towards the pre-primary, primary and secondary levels.
At the pre-primary school level, we support the government by improving the learning infrastructures in Tanga region.
Our basic education model is designed to give a second chance at learning to children who have been left out of the formal education system due to extreme poverty, violence, displacement or discrimination. The non-formal schools complement the mainstream school system with innovative teaching methods and materials.
At the secondary level, we provide need-based training and student mentoring to improve mainstream education.
|Education||The Play Lab Project||The LEGO Foundation||October 2015||5 years|
|Accelerated Learning Process targeting 1050 girls aged 10-19 in South Sudan and Tanzania||NORAD||August 2015||3 years|